Complementary probes for the electrochemical interface


The functions of electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices rely on the dynamic junction between a solid and a fluid: the electrochemical interface (EI). Many experimental techniques have been developed to probe the EI, but they provide only a partial picture. Building a full mechanistic understanding requires combining multiple probes, either successively or simultaneously. However, such combinations lead to important technical and theoretical challenges. In this Review, we focus on complementary optoelectronic probes and modelling to address the EI across different timescales and spatial scales — including mapping surface reconstruction, reactants and reaction modulators during operation. We discuss how combining these probes can facilitate a predictive design of the EI when closely integrated with theory.